Gastric Sleeve Surgery

(Sleeve Gastrectomy)

Article Titles

Obesity, characterized by excessive accumulation of fat in the body, is gradually increasing its impact worldwide. This chronic disease, which leads to psychological destruction of people and abstraction from society, can also endanger people’s lives with secondary illnesses that it causes.

For obese patients who cannot lose weight due to diets and exercises, bariatric surgeries come to the fore as an opportunity to facilitate the weight loss process. At the beginning of the most preferred among bariatric surgeries is “sleeve gastrectomy,” that is, Gastric Sleeve surgery. Gastric Sleeve surgery can, in essence, be defined as gastric reduction surgery. Unlike some obesity surgeries, nutrient absorption is not reduced within this operation; only stomach volume is restricted.

What Is Gastric Sleeve Surgery?

Gastric Sleeve surgery is an obesity surgery performed on the principle of reducing the stomach by about 80% and creating a new tube-shaped, thin and long stomach. A large part of the stomach is permanently removed from the outside of the body, while a new slim tube-shaped stomach is created. After gastric reduction surgery, patients are quickly saturated with little food consumption. A section in the removed stomach area also releases the hunger hormone ghrelin and experiences a significant decrease in their appetite.

What Tests Should Be Performed Before Gastric Sleeve Surgery?

Before Gastric Sleeve surgery, a series of tests and assays are performed to determine the suitability of patients thoroughly. A series of tests such as liver function test, complete blood count, lipid profile, respiratory function test, ECG, total iron-binding capacity measurement is performed to minimize complications during and after the operation. The examinations conducted before sleeve gastrectomy are examined with a multidisciplinary approach, and the patients’ suitability for stomach reduction surgery is evaluated.

Who Can Have Gastric Sleeve Surgery?

Gastric Sleeve surgery is an operation performed under general anaesthesia to shrink the stomach, restrict nutrient intake permanently. As with all other bariatric surgeries, this operation does not guarantee that patients will lose weight. It only allows anatomical changes that accelerate and facilitate weight loss. For this reason, patient selection for the operation is essential. In general, in the range 18 to 65 years, body mass index value of 40 and over, the BMI value and are over 35-induced obesity, sleep apnea, high cholesterol, high blood pressure and secondary health problems such as Type 2 diabetes, life after gastric sleeve surgery for the operation showed determination in fulfilling the requirements of the general health status and patients who are a suitable candidate for gastric sleeve.

How Is Gastric Sleeve Surgery Performed?

Gastric Sleeve surgery is performed laparoscopically under general anaesthesia. 4-5 holes are drilled in millimetre sizes from the abdominal area (which spot will be drilled in how many millimetre sizes is determined by its function within the operation). The procedure is performed with surgical instruments with a special camera at the end of the drilled holes. During gastric reduction surgery, a single-step operation, the stomach is punched and shaped into a thin tube; simultaneously, the large part of the stomach is removed. If the process completed in about 1 – 1.5 hours will be performed with an open technique, an extension may occur in time. A leak test is performed in the stomach before the operation is completed; Gastric Sleeve surgery is terminated if no leakage is detected. Open millimetre incisions are closed by stitching, punching or glueing.

Nutrition after Gastric Sleeve Surgery

For patients to lose weight quickly after Gastric Sleeve surgery, The patient should thoroughly follow nutritional rules. Nutrition after Gastric Sleeve surgery can be considered in three separate sections: liquid diet period, pure diet period, and substantial diet period. The stomach is prepared smoothly for digestion by adapting to feeding periods, and the risk of possible complications is reduced. During the liquid diet period, it is essential to consume protein-containing, thin clear liquids. All solid foods should be thoroughly crushed and mashed to have no grains left during the mash diet period. During the definite nutrition period, it is essential to reduce the portions and chew and swallow each bite entirely. Care should be taken when selecting food after Gastric Sleeve surgery. Cooking foods with healthy cooking methods, low in calories, high in protein content, have qualities that will not cause discomfort in the stomach are the most critical points to pay attention to.

Exercise and Sports after Gastric Sleeve surgery

Gastric Sleeve surgery is usually aimed at starting exercise and sports as soon as possible and increasing weight loss. But it should be expected that it will take about a month for intense training to begin. Sports programs after Gastric Sleeve surgery, such as a nutrition program, should also be created in person. Variables such as patients’ physical exertion capacity, age, general health status, weight can cause changes in the exercises that need to be applied. Those with Sleeve gastrectomy should initially focus on improving their physical fitness by taking light walks and adapting to fat burning and endurance-enhancing programs as time goes on. Revising exercise programs as weight is lost is an essential requirement for the weight loss process not to pause.

What to Consider After Gastric Sleeve Surgery

Those who have Gastric Sleeve surgery must adopt healthy lifestyle habits so that they can lose the weight they aim for and maintain weight control. Otherwise, there may be problems at the point of both weight loss and keeping the given weight. After Gastric Sleeve surgery, it is possible to list what needs to be considered as follows:

* Compliance with feeding periods and rules specific to these periods must be ensured.

* Smoking and alcohol should not be consumed as a priority during the recovery period.

* Solid-liquid separation should be made; the liquid should not be consumed within half an hour before and after meals.

* Daily water consumption should be 1.5 litres.

* Care should be taken for Protein-weighted nutrition.

* Recommended minerals and vitamins should be used within the recommended periods. Periodic checks should not be neglected; health status should be closely monitored.

* After Gastric Sleeve surgery, exercise should be adopted as part of the daily routine. As weight is lost, exercises should be intensified, while professionals should obtain support if possible.

* After Gastric Sleeve surgery, spicy, carbonated, excessive fatty drinks and foods that will disturb the stomach should not be consumed.

It can also be easily observed that each of these rules can affect the operation’s success when examining the comments of those who have Gastric Sleeve surgery. Gastric Sleeve surgery should be considered as a bridge to the goal of weight loss. Patients’ preferences and habits they will adopt can directly affect outcomes. At this point, the attitudes of patients in their immediate vicinity are also of distinctive importance. Being supported and being reminded of their goals when forced is only part of their family’s responsibility. Life after tube ide surgery is not easy; patients may have difficulty abandoning their habits. In this process, when they need the support of their loved ones more than ever, it may be preferable to receive psychological support when necessary.

Is there any pain after Gastric Sleeve surgery?

As with all surgical interventions, the occurrence of pain after Gastric Sleeve surgery is expected to be a complaint, but it can be easily managed with simple painkillers. Since the operation takes place with a closed technique, patients’ comfort in the healing process is high. However, to prevent complications, including pain, in the postoperative period, the recommendations of surgeons must be followed should not be ignored.

When Can I Return To Work After Gastric Sleeve Surgery?

Return to work after Gastric Sleeve surgery may vary depending on the patient’s general health status, recovery rate and level of activity required by the result. For those who work at a desk, this period is 7-10 days; for those who work in jobs with an intense activity level, it is about 3-4 weeks.

How Does Gastric Sleeve Surgery Make You Lose Weight?

Sleeve gastrectomy is the most basic gastric reduction surgery. The stomach volume shrinks by 80%, and at this time, the part of the stomach that is secreted the hunger hormone is removed. From this point of view, it is possible to mention a bidirectional mechanism of action. Although patients eat little, they quickly reach satisfaction, and their appetite is controlled. In this way, if they also comply with nutrition and exercise rules, they can soon start to lose weight.

How Much Weight Is Lost After Gastric Sleeve Surgery?

During two years after Gastric Sleeve surgery, patients are expected to lose 60% -70% of their excess weight. But the amount of weight that will be given after the operation may vary for patients. Age, gender, muscle density, exercise, and compliance with nutrition rules can change the results. Although patients lose weight quickly, the speed of weight loss will decrease after a while. It is essential to get through this period patiently to get the effort paid off, and changes in diet or exercise programs may be made when necessary.

What Are The Advantages Of Gastric Sleeve Surgery?

Because stomach reduction surgery leads to permanent anatomical changes in the stomach, it can allow patients to lose weight quickly and significantly benefit from the decline of secondary chronic diseases caused by excess weight. The advantages of patients can be replicated, as the technique of operating also makes the healing process comfortable after Gastric Sleeve surgery. Gastric Sleeve surgery is one of the most preferred bariatric surgeries worldwide, with benefits such as limiting nutrient intake and reducing appetite. Protecting the pyloric valves during surgery is considered an essential factor so that patients do not face the risk of dumping syndrome.

What Are The Risks Of Gastric Sleeve Surgery?

After Gastric Sleeve surgery, complications that may occur after each surgery may occur. In addition to risks such as bleeding, embolism, deep vein thrombosis, arrhythmia, complications such as stomach blockage, stomach leakage, and stomach fire may occur. It is aimed to minimize all these complaints with the examinations performed before, during and after the operation.

Do those who have Gastric Sleeve surgery gain weight again?

Suppose there is no adaptation to nutrition and exercise programs when patients prefer high-calorie foods when their stomachs experience stable full occupancy. In that case, there may also be a re-gain of weight and a re-growth of the stomach. In such a case, detailed examinations can be performed, and revision surgeries can be raised for patients.

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